viernes, 5 de junio de 2015

Evolución de la Guitarra Clásica

Guitar, ca. 1630–50
Attributed to Matteo Sellas (Italian, ca. 1612–1652)
Wood, bone, various materials

L. 37 5/8 in. (96.5 cm)
Purchase, Clara Mertens Bequest, in memory of André Mertens, 1990 (1990.103)

This five-course guitar has a vaulted back with scalloped snakewood ribs and ivory spacers. The back of the neck is inlaid in a checkerboard pattern made of bone and snakewood squares. The peghead, which bears the engraved inscription "Matteo Sellas alla Corona in Venetia," is a modern replacement, as are the rose and bridge. The Sellas family (active in Venice during the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries) was noted for its highly ornamented lutes and guitars.

Guitar, late 17th century
Attributed to Giacomo (Jacob) Ertel (German, ca. 1646–1711)
Wood, various materials

L. 35 11/16 in. (90.7 cm)
Purchase, Rogers Fund, Mrs. Peter Nicholas, University of Chicago Club of New York, Mrs. Henry J. Heinz II, and Lowell S. Smith, and Sally Sanford Gifts, The Crosby Brown Collection of Musical Instruments, by exchange, and funds from various donors, 1984 (1984.225)

Checkerboard patterns of bone, ebony, and fruitwood decorate the back, sides, and neck of Ertel's guitar. The peghead, fingerboard, and top have inlaid ornaments of mother-of-pearl. The modern rosette of wood and parchment is a replacement. Formerly converted to six single strings, this instrument was later restored to its five-course configuration. A similar signed instrument is in the Innsbruck Landesmuseum.

Guitar, 1797
Benito Sánchez de Aguilera (Spanish, active ca. 1790–1800)
Wood; L. 36 3/4 in. (93.3 cm)
Purchase, Clara Mertens Bequest, in memory of André Mertens, 1990 (1990.221)
This guitar has a two-piece top of spruce or fir and a three-piece cypress back and sides. The head and bridge are replacements in the style of the originals. The neck may also be a replacement. There are six double courses of strings.
Guitar, ca. 1835–40
Johann Anton Stauffer (Austrian, ca. 1805–after 1851)
Wood, various materials; L. 33 3/16 in. (84.2 cm)
Rogers Fund, 1979 (1979.390)
An engraved paper label in the body states: Nach dem Modell/des Luigi Legnani 3347/von Johann Anton Stuffer in Wien N-480/Stauffer [MS signature]. Rinaldo Luigi Legnani (1790–1877) was a guitar virtuoso as well as amateur violin and guitar maker who developed a guitar design emulated by Stauffer. This example has a small narrow-waisted body with a one-piece back, sides of maple, and top of spruce. The neck angle (and thus the height of the strings, or the "action") can be adjusted with a key mechanism. Johann Anton Stauffer was the son of Johann Georg Stauffer (1778–1853), the maker of the arpeggione (59.105) exhibited in the Museum's gallery of musical instruments Fuente:
Guitar, ca. 1838
Christian Frederick Martin (American, born Germany, 1796–1873) New York
Wood, various materials; L. 36 13/16 in. (93.5 cm) Rogers Fund, 1979 (1979.380a)
Christian Frederick Martin worked for Johann Georg Stauffer (1778–1853) in Vienna, rising to foreman in the factory and ultimately leaving for New York in 1833, where he set up shop on Hudson Street. He was the founder of C. F. Martin & Co., the company that produced many forms of twentieth-century guitars, including the "Dreadnought." The instrument exhibited here closely resembles the Stauffer guitar (1979.390) in the Museum's collection. This guitar has a one-piece back and sides of bird's-eye maple; the top is spruce. Like the Stauffer guitar, the neck angle can be adjusted with a key mechanism.Fuente:
Guitar, 1912 Manuel Ramírez (Spanish, 1864–1916) Madrid Wood; L. 37 5/8 in. (96.5 cm)
Gift of Emilita Segovia, Marquessa of Salobreña, 1986 (1986.353.2)
This guitar was used by the legendary guitarist Andrés Segovia (1893–1987). This instrument was originally made as an eleven-string guitar, a design popular in Andalusia during the last half of the nineteenth century. It was undoubtedly converted to its present six-string configuration prior to its acquisition by Segovia. In addition to the label of Manuel Ramírez, a repair label was placed inside by Santos Hernández in 1922. At the time this instrument was made, Hernández worked for Ramírez, and he is believed to have been involved in its construction. The two-piece back is made of Brazilian rosewood, the two-piece top is of spruce.Fuente:
Guitar, 1937
Hermann Hauser (German, 1882–1952)
Germany (Munich)
Spruce, rosewood, and mahogany; L. 38 7/8 in. (97.7 cm)
Gift of Emilita Segovia, Marquesa of Salobreña, 1986 (1986.353.1)
Based closely on Spanish models, this guitar replaced the Ramírez guitar (1986.353.2) as Andrés Segovia's principal concert instrument in 1937. He used this instrument for concerts and recordings until 1962 and once called it the "greatest guitar of our epoch." It is said that Hauser brought instruments to Segovia for twelve successive years but that none pleased the virtuoso until he tried this one. The two-piece back and sides are of Brazilian rosewood, the two-piece top is of spruce.